the eye,” it describes a technique used by artists to create an optical
illusion of a three-dimensional work on a two-dimensional surface, meant to
deceive the viewer. Early examples can be found in surviving murals in Ancient
Pompeii—painters used this technique to create the illusion of larger rooms. Throughout the years artists
have continued to employ this method of artistic deception, which became even
more prevalent during the Renaissance, where artists gained a better
understanding of linear perspective.
pure culinary deception. While this lightly sweetened bread looks like a tasty
treat since it contains both chocolate chips and coconut, it also contains
almost 2 servings of zucchini (roughly translating into 1/8th of a
serving of vegetables per slice!), making it a delicious way to sneak some
extra vegetables into your breakfast, snack, dessert, etc. Since we are nearing
the end of prime zucchini season (best May-mid September), there is really no
reason not to indulge in this summery bread!
to ½ c. if you like)
with cooking spray (I used Trader Joe’s Coconut oil spray), and then set aside.
In a large bowl, beat the sugar, oil and eggs together with a hand mixer until
blended completely, and then mix in the applesauce. In a small, separate bowl,
combine the flour, cocoa, baking soda, cinnamon and salt, mixing well with a
wire whisk. Stir in the zucchini, chocolate chips and coconut, and then spread
into the prepared loaf pan. Bake for about an hour, and be careful not to place
oven racks too closely together—hence the dented top on my otherwise beautiful
bread. But don’t let my mishap discourage you. As long as you bake the bread
after drinking a sufficient 2-3 cups of coffee, yours should be perfect.
Petrus Christus, Portrait of a Carthusian, 1446, oil on panel
architecture. After being seen in Pompeii, they appeared during the Renaissance
all over Europe. New understandings of perspective and the depiction of light
sources allowed artists such as Petrus Christus to paint highly realistic
portraits, as seen here in his work of 1446. Christus’ depiction of an
anonymous monk stands out against the deep background, an innovation separating
Christus from his contemporaries (Campin, van Eyck). While double light sources hit
the monk from the back and the front, the artist also highlights his supreme
skill at rendering optical illusions (or a momento mori? Though hard to tell, given
the anonymity of the sitter) with a tiny fly, perched in the middle of the
inner frame enclosing the figure.
Louis Léopold Boilly, A
distinguish themselves with powerful trompe l’oeils. One such artist is Louis Léopold
Boilly, who closely studied this technique, and who painted the present example
for one of his good friends. Here, Boilly’s technical skill is so strong that
we do not even question the quirky composition—a cat poking his head over a
small log and out of a ripped canvas, quietly eyeing a pair of herring.
Jesuiitenkirche (Jesuit Church) in Vienna Austria, 1703 (image by Alberto Fernandez Fernandez)
Pozzo’s opulent dome at Jesuiitenkirche is actually painted on a flat surface. The
exterior of the Musée Magritte, completed in 2008, features a realistic
exterior opening up as theater curtains to reveal a reproduction of the
Surrealist master’s work.
Musée Magritte, Brussels, 2008 (image by Michel wal)
larger than life examples, the delicious factor (and dare I say slight healthy
perks?) helps the bread have a real moment as well. Enjoy!!